Mitochondria, a powerhouse of the cell, generates energy in the form of ATP. A pathway called electron transport chain- composed of five enzymes- together synthesizes ATP by a complicated movement of electrons and protons. The third enzyme in this chain is cytochrome bc1 (or complex III), catalyzing proton pumping in response to electron transfer reactions.
Image: Pixabay The Standard Model is currently the widely accepted theory of how particles and forces interact at the smallest scales. It describes three fundamental forces in nature: electromagnetic, strong, and weak nuclear force. But it’s an incomplete explanation of how nature works. Also, other theories suggest the possible presence of a fifth force. Using
In a new study, scientists realize that mixing cesium, copper, and zinc oxide in a close-contact configuration catalyzes a reaction pathway that transforms carbon dioxide (CO2) into ethanol (C2H6O). The study is a significant step towards a nearly ‘green’ zero-net-carbon technology that efficiently converts carbon dioxide into ethanol. The study conducted by an international collaboration
It is less known that how DNA helix is neatly packed and stored inside cells. DNA is wound around protein structures known as histones. It forms an elegant, tightly packed structure known as chromatin. For molecular processes to use that information, the chromatin needs to open and make the DNA available for binding by transcription
Why the protective cover of the brachiopod Discinisca tenuis becomes incredibly soft in water and gets hard again in the air? A new study by an international research team with the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has revealed the reason. The brachiopod Discinisca tenuis’s shell is enriched with a mineral that protects it from harmful environmental